Gilgit-Baltistan, formerly known as the Northern Areas of Pakistan is the northern most administrative territory of Pakistan. It borders Azad Kashmir to the south, the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the west, the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan to the north, Xinjiang, China, to the east and northeast and Jammu and Kashmir to the southeast. The region, together with Azad Kashmir, Aksai Chin and Shakshagam Valley of China and Jammu and Kashmir, is disputed between India, China and Pakistan
Gilgit-Baltistan is an autonomous self-governing region that was established as a single administrative unit in 1970, formed by the amalgamation of the Gilgit Agency, the Baltistan region and the former princely states of Hunza and Nagar. It covers an area of 72,971 km² (28,174 sq mi) and is highly mountainous. It has an estimated population approaching 2,000,000. Its capital city is Gilgit (population 216,760 est)
Between 399 and 414: The Chinese Buddhist Pilgrim Faxian(Fa-hsien) visited Gilgit Baltistan. while in the 6th century The King Somana ruled in Palola (greater Gilgit-Chilas). Between 627 and 645: The Chinese Buddhist pilgrimXuanzang (Hsüan-tsang) travelled through this region. From 644 to 655, 671: Navasurendrādityanandi was King of Palola (Gilgit). In 706/707, Jayamaṅgalavikramādityanandi became the King of Palola. It is said that in the year 717 A delegation of a ruler of great Palola, named Su-fu-she-li-ji-li-ni according to the transcription of Chinese characters, reached the Chinese Imperial court. 719: Su-fu-she-li-ji-li-ni, King of Palola, sent a second delegation to the Chinese Imperial court. At least in 719/720 Ladakh (Mard) was part of theTibetan Empire. About 720 Buddhism is practiced in Baltistan and Sanskrit was the written language. Mentioning of a kunjāna (~_kuljāna) of King, who is Lord of the area of Saṃbhūtānnā and of a person called Gaṇḍi, son of a King, in a Brahmi inscription of Shigar. Mentioning of the monastery of Navasaṃghārāma and the monk Saṃgharakṣita in a Brahmi inscription from Kachura (Skardu-Valley). It is unknown if Baltistan temporarily belonged at that time to Palola.720: Delegation of Sou-lin-t'o i che (= Surendrāditya), King of Palola, to the Chinese imperial court. The Emperor gives the ruler of Cashmere "Tchen-fo-lo-pi-li (Chandrāpīḍa)" the title of "King of Cashmere".At least 721/722: Baltistan is part of the Tibetan Empire. 721/722: The conquest of Little Palola or Bru-zha (Yasin) by the Tibetan army fails. Mo-ching-mang (Mo-kin-mang) is King of Little Palola. With 723 727/28: The Korean Buddhist pilgrim Hyecho (Huichao) reached Palola. In 737 / 738 Tibetan troops under the leadership of Minister sKyes-bzang ldong-tsab conquer Little Palola. 740/41: The Tibetan Princess Khri-ma-lod was sent as a bride of Su-shih-li-chi, the ruler (rje) of Little Palola. 747: Reconquest of Little Palola by a Chinese army under the leadership of the ethnic-Korean commander Gao Xianzhi (Kao Hsien-chih). 753: Conquest of Great Palola by a Chinese army under the military GovernorFeng Changqing until 755 due to the An Lushan rebellion the Chinese lost its supremacy in Central Asia and in the regions around Gilgit baltitan. Approx. from the year 720 up to the 15th century Buddhism was still common in Gilgit Baltistan, while theTibetan script replaced Sanskrit as the written language .
Map of Tibetan Empire citing the areas of Gilgit Baltistan as part of its kingdom in 780-790 Ce.
Gilgit-Baltistan was ruled by many local rulers amongst them Maopons of skardu and Rajas of Hunza were famous. The Persian geographical description of the "Regions of the world" (Ḥudūd al-'Ālam) edited by V. Minorksy the countries Bolor (Bulūr, p. 121) and "Bolorian Tibet" (B. lūrī, p. 93) are mentioned. According to this description "Bolorian Tibet" borders Bolor. The inhabitants are described as dealers, living in tents and huts of fur. The country should extend to its length and width each 15 day trips. Whether Baltistan can be identified with "Bolorian Tibet" is not researched. The Maqpons of skardu unfied Gilgit baltistan with chitral, ladakh specially in the era of Ali Sher Khan Anchan who had a friendly relation with Mughal court. Anchan reign brought prosperity in art, sport,and variety in architecture He introduce polo in gilgit region and in chitral he sent group of musician in Delhi to learn Indian music and due relation with Mughals The Mughal architecture influenced Architecture of the region as well.
After Anchan in his successors Abdal Khan had great influence though In the popular literature of Baltistan he is still alive as dark figure by the nickname "Mizos" "man-eater".The last raja of Maqpons was Ahmed Shah who ruled 1811-1840 in entire baltistan.The areas of Gilgit, Chitral, and Hunza get independence of Maqpons many year before.
In November 1839: Beginning of the campaign of Zorawar Singh against Baltistan. 1839/1840: Conquest of Skardu and capture of Ahmad Shah. Ahmad Shah was forced to accompany Zorawar Singh on his raid into Western Tibet. Appointment of Baghwan Singh as administrator (Thanadar) in Skardu. 1841: Successful uprising against the Dogras in Baltistan led by Ali Khan of Rondu, Haidar Khan of Shigar, and Daulat Ali Khan from Khaplu. Capture of the Dogra commander Baghwan Singh in Skardu. 1842: The second conquest of Baltistan by the Dogra Commander Wasir Lakhpat with the active support of Ali Sher Khan (III) from lKartaksho. Bloody capture of the fortress of Kharphocho. Haidar Khan from Shigar, one of the leaders of the uprising against the Dogra, was imprisoned and died in captivity. Gosaun was appointed as administrator (Thanadar) for Baltistan and til 1860, the entire region of Gilgit-Baltistan was conquered by the Sikhs and the Dogras. It was the Dogras who incorporated Gilgit-Baltistan into Kashmir even though the people of the region are more closely related to those of Ladakh and Chitral. After the defeat of the Sikhs in the First Anglo-Sikh War, it became a part of the princely state with the name Jammu and Kashmir in 1846 under the rule of the Dogras who ruled the more than a century. It remained so till a rebellion, organized by a mutineered Major Brown of the Gilgit Scouts overthrew Ghansara Singh, the Governor administering the region on behalf of the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir on 1 November 1947, and temporarily installed an unrecognized state of their own. Raja Shah Rais Khan became the President while Mirza Hassan Khan the Commander-in-Chief of the Gilgit scouts. The region had run its own government for 16 days but later on the approval of local residents, unconditionally offered Pakistan to take over the administration. Also After Pakistan's independence, Jammu and Kashmir initially remained an independent state. Later On 22 October 1947, Tribal militias backed by Pakistan crossed the border in Jammu and Kashmir with the claim that they needed to suppress a rebellion on the southeast of the kingdom. Local tribal militias and the Pakistani armed forces moved to take Srinagar but on reaching Uri they encountered defensive forces. Hari Singh made a plea to India for assistance and signed the Instrument of Accession. The British government also took part in stopping the Pakistani forces from advancing. On 20 January 1948, the UN passed a resolution which called for the withdrawal of both countries forces from Jammu and Kashmir, however a part of it (Known as Azad Kashmir) has remained under the control of Pakistan since then. In 1970 the two part territory was merged into a single administrative unit, and given the name "Northern Areas". This was actually first used by the United Nations to refer to the northern areas of Kashmir. The Shaksgam tract was ceded by Pakistan to China following the signing of the Sino-Pakistani Frontier Agreement in 1963.
The last Maqpon Raja Ahmed Shah (died in prison in Srinagar by Dograrulers. around 1845)
Before the demise of Shribadat, a group of Shin people migrated from Gilgit Dardistan and settled in the Dras and Kharmang areas. The descendants of those Dardic people can be still found today, and is believed that they have maintained their Dardic culture and Shina